Christian Denominations

Adventist Church of God Eastern Orthodox Lutheran Pietism / Brethren
Anglican / Episcopal Christian Churches Friends Mennonite Presbyterian
Baptist Church of Christ Fundamental / Bible Churches Other  
Catholic Congregational Holiness Movement Pentecostalism  

Adventist groups trace their beginnings back to William Miller. Miller speculated that the end of the world would come in 1844. Adventists are very focused on end time prophecy. Most groups have spent considerable time trying to decode time prophecies in the Scriptures trying to pinpoint the exact time of the Second Coming. Most still concentrate on the Second Coming, some teach Annihilationism, which is that the wicked will be destroyed in the lake of fire, instead of living eternally in it.

Adventist Denominations:

  1. Advent Christian Church, founded 1860
    Hold to soul sleep, and Annihilationism, but reject the prophecies of Ellen G. White.
  2. Branch Davidians, founded 20th century (cult)
    Believed they were the 144,000 and would start the Davidic kingdom on earth. David Koresh taught he was the Messiah. (also charges of child sexual abuse)
  3. Church of God General Conference, founded 1840s (cult)
    Non-Trinitarian (cult) premillennial, soul sleep, and Annihilationism,
  4. Church of God (Seventh Day), founded 1863
    Worship on Saturday, but reject the prophecies of Ellen G. White. Hold to soul sleep, and Annihilationism, foot washing
  5. Seventh Day Adventists, founded 1863
    worship on Saturday, abstain from alcohol and tobacco, Some have taught worshiping on Sunday is the mark of the beast (worshiping on Sunday would send you to hell). They do not believe in an Antichrist. The second coming will take the save to heaven the rest will be destroyed, and Satan will be bound on earth for 1000 years. Many have held the writings of Ellen G. White to be superior to the scriptures. (this would cause some Christians to consider them as a cult)
Anglican / Episcopal
The Anglican church started in 1534 when the Church of England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church. Officially the king of England is the head of the church. Their reform was based mainly on the writings of Tertullian from about 210AD. The Episcopal church, also known as the Protestant Episcopal Church, started in 1789 when Anglicans broke from England and started the Episcopal church in America. They have orders of Monks and Nuns. 

Their beliefs include:

In the last hundred years or so they have shifted to the allegorical interpretation of scripture allowing these changes:

Other Denominations that broke from the Episcopal Church:

  1. Anglican Catholic Church, founded 1977
    Rejects ordination of women, reaffirms the 7 ecumenical councils, and catholic principals. 
  2. Charismatic Episcopal Church, founded 1992 
    acramental Charismatic 
  3. Episcopal Orthodox Church, founded 1963
    Affirms (KJV) Virgin Birth, Atoning Sacrifice, Trinity, 2nd coming, salvation by faith alone, (anti-social gospel and communism)
  4. Reformed Episcopal Church, founded 1873 
    Sacramental, baptismal regeneration, and affirms priesthood of all believers, Calvinist
  5. Southern Episcopal Church, founded 1962
    Reaffirmed truth of scripture, usefulness of Apocrypha, and the ancient creeds
The during the protestant reformation, some found that the baptism in Scripture taught water baptism by immersion. Since the normal practice of the churches was infant baptism, they taught one must be re-baptized to be a good Christian. They became known as the Ana-Baptists. (Ana is Greek for again.) From these the Baptist groups began. Most Baptists today may make you become re-baptized depending on how, where, or by whom you were baptized the first time.

John Smyth, an Anglican bishop, is credited with starting the Baptist movement in Holland in 1610 after fleeing persecution in England. At his death the Baptist movement ceased in Holland and the majority of Baptists there returned to England. During this same time the Particular Baptists (Calvinistic) began to grow in England and both began to spread to the USA.

Roger Williams started the first recorded Baptist church in America in Providence, Road Island in 1639. He is famous for standing for the idea of the separation of church and state. Until the end of the Revolutionary War Baptists were persecuted in the US.

Today we have over 47 different kinds of Baptists in the US alone.

Baptists, like some Eastern Orthodox Churches, believe in believers baptism by immersion. (Only adults that confess to be a believer in Christ should be baptized and this is to be done by immersion, not sprinkling or pouring.) Most of the older churches, Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Anglicans, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Methodists, etc. practice infant baptism by sprinkling.

Most also believe in eternal security (the doctrine that once a person is truly saved they can't loose their salvation) except General and Free Will Baptists. Some, like the Primitive Baptists, believe in Calvinism. Some will also teach the gifts of the spirit ceased when the last apostle died or when the cannon was finished. A few, like the Pentecostal Free Will Baptists, practice speaking in tongues (a prayer language).

They are autonymous (pastors are elected by each church instead of being appointed by a bishop like the Episcopal churches) and believe in the separation of church and state (as opposed to church of England, Lutherans in Germany, Catholics in Spain and Italy) They are dispensationalists. Most are more concerned with revivalism than doctrine.

Current Baptist groups
  1. Alliance of Baptist Churches, founded 1987 
    Encourages inquiry into church history, dedicated to social and economic justice
  2. American Baptist Association, founded 1905
    Pre-millennial, eternal security, denounce abortion, homosexuality, and pre-marital sex
  3. American Baptist Churches in the USA, founded 1845
    Denounce slaveryand alcohol. Baptism and communion are not necessary to salvation. Less conservative that Southern Baptists, allows ordination of women, would like to fellowship with all Baptist groups (even Freewill)
  4. Baptist Bible Fellowship, founded 1950
    Eternal Security
  5. Baptist General Conference, founded 1852
    Conservative, Pre-millennial
  6. Baptist World Alliance, McLean, VA, founded in 1905
  7. Conservative Baptist Association of America, founded 
  8. Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, founded 1991
    Objecting to theological struggles in the Southern Baptists, it went independent to focus on ministry rather then theology.
  9. Free Will Baptists, founded 1935
    Denounce eternal security, practice foot washing
  10. General Association of Regular Baptists, founded 1932
    Pre-millennial,  Eternal Security
  1. General Baptists, founded 1870
    Denounce eternal security, practice foot washing, Pre-millennial
  2. National Baptist Convention USA, founded 1895
    opposed to all forms of church organization
  3. National Missionary Baptist, founded 1988
  4. National Primitive Baptist Convention, founded 1907
  5. Primitive Baptists, founded 1827
    Strictest and most exclusive, Calvinist, some practice foot washing
  6. Pentecostal Free Will Baptists, founded 1959
    Pentecostal, Arminian, Holiness, foot washing, Pre-millennial  
  7. Progressive National Baptist Convention, founded 1961
    (Black) Civil rights activists
  8. Reformed Baptists, founded 1954
    5 point Calvinism
  9. Separate Baptists, founded 1700
    Rejects all creeds; Calvinism, practice foot washing
  10. Seventh Day Baptist, founded 1802
    Worship on Saturday instead of Sunday, open communion
  11. Southern Baptist Convention, founded 1845
    Conservative; was very Calvinistic until this century; rejects ordination of women, and affirms the death penalty; eternal security

These groups broke from the RCC (Roman Catholic Church) over Papal infallibility and/or other doctrinal issues. The OCC (Old Catholic Church) is the largest of these and several sub groups broke from the OCC.

Catholic Denominations:

  1. American Catholic Church, founded 1989
    Broke from the RCC in reaction to Vatican II's position on birth control, ordination, and theological debate. 

  2. Eastern Rite Catholic/Uniate Churches, founded various dates
    These groups are under the jurisdiction or the RCC, but have married clergy, serve bread and wine to the laity, and have their own distinctive language, rites, and canon law.

  3. Liberal Catholic Church, founded 1916 (cult)
    Broke from the Old Catholic Church, it combines the teaching or the OCC and the Theosophical and spiritualist societies, teaching eastern mysticism. They have married clergy, and ordination homosexuals.

  4. Mariavite Old Catholic Church of North America, founded 1972
    A unique type of Old Catholic Church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

  5. Old Catholic Churches, founded 1914
    Broke from the RCC over the issue of Papal infallibility, at Vatican I, and Jansenism. they hold to the old style of ritual and prayers for the dead. Also rejects Immaculate conception of Mary, compulsory Celibacy of the Priesthood, ordination of women. It is in communion with the Anglican Church and several Orthodox bodies.

  6. Old Roman Catholic Church of North America, founded 

  7. Polish National Catholic Church of America, founded 1897
    Broke from the OCC, Clergy can marry (since 1921), rejects ordination of women.

  8. Roman Catholic Church, founded (325, or 600)
    Holds to Sacramentalism, Sacerdotalism, Papal Infallibility, Infant Baptism, justification by faith and works, Clergy can't marry. Rejects ordination of homosexuals and women.

Dates are when the USA branches were started.

Church of God

  1. Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God, founded 1916
    Holiness, Pentecostal, women clergy, Banned activities: smoking, foolish talking, jesting, using slang, marring unbelievers
  2. Church of God (Anderson, IN), founded 1881 
    Pietistic, Amillennial, Holiness, foot washing
  3. Church of God (Cleveland, TN), founded 1886
    Pentecostal, Holiness, Pre-Millennial, Divine healing, foot washing,  Banned activities: alcohol, smoking, membership in secret societies
  4. Church of God (general conference), founded 1921 (cult)
    Adventist, Non-Trinitarian premillennial, soul sleep, and Annihilationism,
  5. Church of God (Holiness), founded 1886
    Holiness, Banned activities: dance, alcohol, smoking, playing cards, theater, marring unbelievers, can't ware short sleeve shirts or ties, divorcing your current spouse to remarry your first spouse is encouraged.
  6. Church of God (Seventh Day), founded 1863 
    Adventist, Worship on Saturday, but reject the prophecies of Ellen G. White. Hold to soul sleep, and Annihilationism, foot washing
  7. Church of God by Faith, founded
  8. Church of God and saints in Christ, founded 1896 (cult)
    Christian, Worship on Saturday, Keep the Decalogue and Jewish festivals, women cover their heads and men were yarmulke and tallith. Practice foot washing, communion is unleavened bread and water
  9. Church of God in Christ, founded 1897 
    Pentecostal, Holiness, Divine healing, immersion, foot washing,  Banned activities: alcohol, smoking, membership in secret societies
  10. Church of God in Christ, International, founded 1970s 
  11. Church of God in Christ, Mennonite, founded 1859 
  12. Church of God of Prophecy, founded 1923
    Pentecostal, Holiness, women clergy, Saved by faith alone, Pre-Millennial, Divine healing, foot washing, Banned activities: alcohol, smoking, narcotics, gold jewelry 
  13. Pentecostal Church of God, founded 1919
  14. World Wide Church of God, founded 1933
    Was Cultic, now orthodox

Christian Churches
During the great awakening, Thomas Campbell (1763-1854) left the Presbyterian church to "restore" primitive Christianity, by removing all creeds and doctrines the devise the church. Barton Stone (1772-1844) held similar views and was famous for the Cane Ridge revivals. In 1832 the "Stoneites" and "Campbellites" forged what would become the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). They are Restorationist churches, who want to restore the church based on the Bible alone. No other historical writings are accepted.

Tend to be Non-creedal and avoid any divisive doctrines. They practice believers Baptism by immersion.

Christian church Denominations:

  1. Christadelphians, founded 1844 (cult)

  2. Christian Church (disciples of Christ), founded 1832
    Hold to the soul being immortal, reject original sin, do not speculate on the Trinity. Communion every Sunday.

  3. Christian Churches and Churches of Christ, founded 1920s
    More conservative than disciples, Communion every Sunday

  4. Christian Congregation, founded 1887 
    Non-creedal, Pacifistic, condemns abortion, capital punishment, and all war. 

  5. Churches of Christ, founded 1906 
    Non-creedal, Communion every Sunday, more conservative than disciples, apposes musical instruments  in church

  6. Church of God and Saints in Christ, founded 1896 (cult)
    Non-Trinitarian, Worship on Saturday, Keep the Decalogue and Jewish festivals, women cover their heads and men were yarmulke and tallith. Practice foot washing, communion is unleavened bread and water,

  7. United Christian Church, founded 1952
    A break off of the church of God Prophecy,
    Holiness, Women Clergy, divine healing, foot washing, pre-millennial, Calvinistic and Arminian sections, most tend toward Word faith heresy, and belief in the Trinity is optional.
    Ban alcohol, smoking, narcotics for ministers.

Dates are when the USA branches were started.

Church of Christ
There are several denominations that have Church of Christ in their name. They range from being quite orthodox to being classified as a cult, in the case of the Boston Church of Christ, now known as the Churches of Christ International. 

The majority have the following teachings:

  1. Deny Total Depravity, premillennialism, and original sin.
  2. The Holy Spirit is not needed to open our minds to understand Scripture.
  3. Hold that Christians are saved by baptism and not by faith alone.
  4. The Law of Moses is still in effect.
  5. Refuse to have musical instruments in church.

There are several churches that have "Church of Christ" in their name:

  1. Church of Christ
  2. Church of Christ (Holiness), founded 1894
    Holiness, divine healing, strong eschatological focus, foot washing 
  3. Churches of Christ, founded 1906
    Non-creedal, Communion every Sunday, more conservative than disciples, apposes musical instruments in church, Arminian
  4. Churches of Christ International (cult)
  5. Churches of Christ in Christian Union, founded 1909 
  6. Church of Christ, Scientist (cult)
  7. Church of Christ, Temple Lot (cult)

In Congregational Churches each church elects its own Pastor. They have no bishops or boards of clergy in authority over local churches. Despite the all encompassing structure Unitarians broke away to from their own denomination in 1825, to get away from the Trinitarians and Calvinists in the congregational movement.

Each church is free to teach doctrines it believes.

Congregational Denominations:

  1. Congregational Christian Churches, founded 1955
  2. Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, founded 1948
  3. United Church of Christ, founded 1957
    Sacramentalist, Reformed

Eastern Orthodox
In 1054 the eastern and western church split. The Eastern Orthodox Churches hold to the following:

  1. Uphold apocrypha, Transubstantiation/Consubstantiation, Infant Baptism
  2. Upholds Sacramentalism and Sacerdotalism, justification by faith and works
  3. Rejects Papal Infallibility, the Pope as the Vicar of Christ, Immaculate Conception of Mary, the assumption of Mary, doctrine of indulgences, ordination of homosexuals and women.
  4. Holds to the perpetual virginity of Mary
  5. Lower Clergy can marry
  6. Have a rule that they will never read the book of revelation in a public worship service.
  7. Condemned chiliasm as heresy in 381AD.
  8. Some hold the doctrine of the Monophysites, (that Christ had one nature instead of two)

Eastern Orthodox Denominations:

  1. African Orthodox Church, founded 1921
  2. Albanian Orthodox Church, founded 1919
  3. American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Church, founded 1938
  4. Antiochian Christian Orthodox Archdiocese of North America, founded 1975
  5. Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church, founded 1938 
  6. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North America, founded 1922
    Infant baptism by immersion
  7. Holy Eastern Orthodox and Apostolic Church in North America, founded 1927
  8. Orthodox Church in America (Russian), founded 1794
  9. Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America, founded 1929
  10. Serbian Eastern Orthodox Church, founded 1921
  11. Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA, founded 1924

Monophysite Orthodox

  1. Armenian Church, founded 301
    Monophysites, Infant baptism by immersion, 
  2. Egyptian Coptic Church, founded
  3. Eritrean Church, founded
  4. Ethiopian Orthodox Church, founded
  5. Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church and Mar Thoma Orthodox Syrian Church (Indian), founded 1978
    Monophysites, in communion with the Anglican Church
  6. Syrian Orthodox church of Antioch, founded 1957

Some of the dates are when the USA branch of the Churches were founded.

The society of Friends, also called Quakers, began when George Fox (AD 1624-1691) heard a voice telling him to seek a personal direct relationship with Christ and avoid doctrinal divisions. The Friends were against Slavery, paying taxes that go toward state sponsored Churches, and they refused to go to state churches. Today they are heavily involved in relief efforts around the world.

Most do not take oaths, go to war, use tobacco, or use alcohol. They believe grace, the power to do good and avoid evil, is universal among all people. They seek perfection not holiness.

Quaker Denominations:

  1. Evangelical Friends International, founded 1990 
    Generally conservative
  2. Friend General Conference, founded 1900
    No pastors are employed
  3. Friends United Meeting, founded 1902
  4. Religious Society of Friends, founded 1904
    More conservative
    An offshoot of this group was the Wilburites. They did not reject the authority of the Bible, but felt inner guidance from the holy spirit was much more important. 

Fundamental / Bible Churches
The movement started by Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899) in reaction to modernism. 

Most Fundamentalist churches hold to the inerrancy of the Bible, literal interpretation and tend to Congregationalist. 

Fundamentalist Denominations:

  1. American Evangelical Christian Churches, founded 1944 
  2. Baptist Bible Fellowship International, founded 1950 
    Pre-Millennial, KJV only, closed communion. Banned activates: dancing, drinking, smoking, movies, and gambling 
  3. Baptist Missionary Association of America, founded 1950 
    Must be baptized by them, 
  4. Berean Fundamental Church, founded 1947 
    Eternal security, Pre-Millennial, Pre-Tribulational
  5. Bible Fellowship Church, founded 1858 
    Eternal Security, Pre-Millennial
  6. Bible Presbyterian Church, founded 1938 
    Protests Modernism
  7. Christian and Missionary Alliance, founded 1887 
    Pre-Millennial, progressive and crisis sanctification, divine healing, close ties with the Assemblies of God
  8. Christian Brethren, founded 1820's 
    Pre-Millennial, more of a restorationist than Pietistic, 
  9. Conservative Baptist Association of America, founded 1947 
  10. Grace Gospel Fellowship, founded 1944 
    Pre-Millennial, Dispensational, total depravity, eternal security, sin nature never eradicated in this life, water baptism not relevant in this dispensation, gifts of the spirit (5 fold), 
  11. Independent Fundamental Churches of America, founded 1930 
    Eternal Security, Total Depravity

Holiness Movement
The holiness movement takes its roots from John Wesley, an Anglican priest ordained in 1728. After studying the writings of the early church father Clement of Alexandria (AD 177), and the Moravians. Wesley was convinced the true holiness is an attitude, a love for God, not how much sin you do or righteousness you do. Clement called this a heart holiness. 

All Holiness Churches are Trinitarian, Arminian (free will, not Calvinist), teach Entire Sanctification (you can be sinless in this life), sin is willful disobedience as opposed to just missing the mark. (They do not recognize the possibility of an unknown sin. Cmp. Leviticus 4:2)

The following is a list of Wesleyan Holiness denominations:

  1. Apostolic Christian Church of America, founded 1847
    o not bear arms or take oaths, Clergy are not paid, clergy don't prepare sermons but rely on the Holy Spirit, closed communion, women were veils, KJV only
  2. Apostolic Faith Church, founded 1907
    Holiness and Pentecostal, Banned activities: dance, alcohol, smoking, playing cards, theater, marring unbelievers, they must dress conservatively
  3. Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God, founded 1916
    Holiness, Pentecostal, women clergy, Banned activities: smoking, foolish talking, jesting, using slang, marring unbelievers
  4. Church of Christ (Holiness), founded 1894
    Holiness, divine healing, strong eschatological focus, foot washing 
  5. Church of God (Holiness), founded 1886
    Holiness, Banned activities: dance, alcohol, smoking, playing cards, theater, marring unbelievers, can't ware short sleeve shirts or ties, divorcing your current spouse to remarry your fist spouse is encouraged.
  6. Church of the Nazarene, founded 1908
    Holiness, Banned activities: dance, alcohol, smoking, theater, membership in secret societies
  7. Churches of Christ in Christian Union, founded 1909 
  8. International Pentecostal Holiness Church, founded 1911 
    Holiness, Pentecostal, Pre-Millennial, Divine healing, 
  9. Wesleyan Church, founded 1843
    Holiness, Banned activities: alcohol, smoking, membership in secret societies

Methodist churches:

  1. African Methodist Episcopal Church, founded 1814
    Holiness, women clergy (black church)
  2. African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, founded 1821
    (black church)
  3. Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, founded 1870
  4. Congregational Methodist Church, founded 1852
  5. Evangelical Church of North America, founded 1968
    Holiness - Wesleyan/Arminian
  6. Evangelical Congregational Church, founded 1894
  7. Evangelical Methodist Church, founded 1946
    Holiness, anti-social gospel, anti-modernism
  8. Free Methodist Church of North America, founded 1860
    Holiness, Banned activities: membership in secret societies
  9. Pillar of Fire, founded 1901
    Holiness, Pre-Millennial, Banned activities: membership in secret societies
  10. Primitive Methodist Church, USA, founded 1840
  11. Southern Methodist Church, founded 1939
  12. United Methodist Church, founded 1968
    Holiness, women clergy, questioned but still against homosexual ordination

Salvation Army (and related organizations)

This group grew out of the Methodist Denomination. Focusing on more outreach that doctrine William Booth (1829-1912) left the Methodist Church in 1861 as a freelance evangelist. These groups are organized in a military pattern.

  1. American Rescue Workers, founded 1913
    Actually a branch of the Christian church
  2. Salvation Army, founded 1880
  3. Volunteers of America, founded 1896

Salvation by faith alone, infant baptism, and Sacrametalism, 

Lutheran Denominations include:

  1. Apostolic Lutheran Church of America, founded 1872
  2. Association of Free Lutheran Congregations, founded 1962
  3. Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America, founded in 1900
  4. Church of the Lutheran Confession, founded 1960
    onservative, Can't be in union with any church that is not in agreement with full Lutheran doctrine.
  5. Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, founded 1988
    Bible not verbally inspired, women clergy, in full communion with the Presbyterian church USA, United Church of Christ, Reformed Church in America,  and status was also approved for the Moravian Church, and the Episcopal church
  6. Evangelical Lutheran Synod, founded 1918
    in union with Wisconsin Synod
  7. Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, founded 1847
    Most conservative
  8. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, founded 1850

The movement started in the 1500's with the writings of Menno Simons (AD 1496-1561). They rejected the teachings of Calvin and Luther. They tried to do away with ties to the state, were Anabaptists, and to live a simple life based on the sermon on the mount. Their statement of faith is the Canon of Dort. (1632).

They obey civil government except in war, practice believers baptism by pouring.  Banned activities: taking oaths, bearing arms, voting, holding public office, membership in secret societies, and involvement in secular activates. Most observe foot washing after the Lord's supper, men and women are separated for this. Some still oppose use of automobiles, telephones, and higher education.

The following is a list of Mennonite denominations:

  1. Beachy Amish Mennonite Churches, founded 1927
    Wear simple clothing, but discipline is milder the the old order Amish churches.
  2. Bruderhof Communities, founded 1847
    Use the apostles creed, believe the Holy Spirit empowers them to live according to the sermon on the mount. Oppose abortion, capital punishment, War, and physician-assisted suicide.
  3. Church of Christ, Mennonite, founded 1859
    Accept the Canon of Dort, women must wear head coverings, men must wear beards. Banned activates: involvement in Military or secular affairs. Worldly dress, jewelry, sports and amusements are also banned.
  4. Conservative Mennonite Conference, founded 1910
    Less conservative the older Amish. Banned activities: gambling, use of Tobacco, alcohol, swearing and oaths. 
  5. Evangelical Mennonite Church, founded 1865
    Nonconformity and nonresistance to the world.
  6. Fellowship of Evangelical Bible Churches, founded 1889
    Hold to Dispensationalism.
  7. General Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches, founded 1860
  8. Mennonite Church, founded 1725
    Teach nonresistance, each person is free to dress as he pleases. Hold to the Canon of Dort and Schleitheim articles. 
  9. Missionary Church, founded 1969
  10. Old Order Amish, founded 1720's
    Must ware Amish clothing (hooks instead of buttons or zippers), can't use automobiles, don't believe in missions, and worship in private homes (do not have churches).
  11. Old Order Mennonite (Wisler) Mennonite Church, founded 1872
    Broke from other Mennonites over the use of English in church, and use old style clothing.

Other Denominations

  1. Community Churches, International Council of Founded 1950
  2. New Apostolic Church of North America Founded 1862
    Also called Irvingites 12 modern apostles, sacramental, Pentecostal, Trinitarian, premillennial
  3. Hutterian Brethren Founded 1530
    Reject Infant Baptism, teach separation of church and state, pacifistic, communal, nonconformity to the world, politics.
  4. Schwenkfelder Church Founded 1519 (Cult)
    Mystical, Consubstantiation, separation of church and state, Christ's divinity was progressive.
  5. Metropolitan community churches, Universal fellowship of Founded 1970
    Homosexual Church
  6. Calvary Chapel Founded 1970
    Arminian, premillennial, pretribulational.

The Pentecostal movement began in the early twentieth century. Pentecostal churches trace their origin to the revival movement in the Negro Holiness Church in Los Angeles in 1906. A minority of them can be traced back to the "Latter Rain" revival movement led by A. J. Tomlinson (1865-1943), who founded the Church of God in 1903.

It is marked primarily by the belief in a prayer language. This form of speaking in tongues was not a foreign language that could be verified but a heavenly, non-earth language. They would say if you are a Christian and do not speak in tongues you are not filled with the Spirit. Most of the groups would say this makes you unfit to join their church or teach in it since you can't be guided by the Holy Spirit. The extreme groups (very few in number) would say if you don't speak in tongues you are not even saved.

In the first half of the twentieth century Pentecostalism was also marked by the teaching that the Celts were the lost tribes of Israel. This was later discarded and today most Pentecostals do not know this was ever taught.

Some Pentecostal Denominations include:

  1. Assemblies of God, founded 1914
    Arminian, divine healing, premillennial
  2. Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ, founded 1952 (cult)
    Arminian, divine healing, premillennial, foot washing. Banned activities: dance, theater
  3. Bible Way Church, founded 1957
    Premillennial, baptism in the Holy Spirit is necessary for 2nd birth, foot washing
  4. Christian Catholic Church, founded 1896
    Triune immersion, premillennial. Banned activities: alcohol, smoking, taking medicine, membership in secret societies
  5. Christian Church of North America, founded 1948
    Non-holiness, believers baptism 
  6. Church of God (Cleveland, TN), founded 1907
    Holiness, premillennial, divine healing, foot washing,  Banned activities: alcohol, smoking, membership in secret societies
  7. Church of God in Christ, founded 1897
    Holiness, divine healing, immersion, foot washing.  Banned activities: alcohol, smoking, membership in secret societies
  8. Church of God of Prophecy, founded 1923
    Holiness, women clergy, saved by faith alone, premillennial, divine healing, foot washing. Banned activities: alcohol, smoking, narcotics, gold jewelry 
  9. Church of our Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith, founded 1889 (cult)
    Premillennial, foot washing, baptism in the Holy Spirit is necessary for 2nd birth
  10. Church of the Living God, Christian Workers, founded 1889
  11. Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of the Truth, founded 1903
    Holiness, communion with water, fasting, KJV only
  1. Congregational Holiness Church, founded 1921
    Holiness, foot washing
  2. Elim Fellowship, founded 1947
    ivine healing and other charismatic gifts
  3. Full Gospel Fellowship, founded 1962
    Premillennial, holiness, foot washing
  4. Independent Assemblies of God, founded 1922
    Premillennial, holiness
  5. International Church of the Foursquare, founded 1927
    Divine healing, premillennial, Holiness
  6. International Pentecostal Church of Christ, founded 1976
    Holiness, divine healing, premillennial, foot washing, child dedication
  7. International Pentecostal Holiness Church, founded 1911 
    Holiness, premillennial, divine  healing, 
  8. Open Bible Standard Churches, founded 1935 
    Premillennial, holiness
  9. Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, founded 1907 (cult)
    Oneness, holiness, KJV only 
  10. Pentecostal Church of God, founded 1919
    Divine healing, foot washing, holiness
  11. Pentecostal Free Will Baptist Church, founded 1959
    Sanctification as 2nd definite work of grace, premillennial, foot washing 
  12. United Holy Church of America, founded 1886
    Instantaneous sanctification, foot washing, tongues not required for membership
  13. United Pentecostal Church, founded 1945 (cult)
    Oneness, holiness 
  14. Vineyard Churches International, founded 1983

Date: 2001

Parham and Seymour

The father of the Assemblies of God, the largest of the Pentecostal denominations, was Charles Parham.

At the dawn of the twentieth century, Parham stated that the gift of tongues had been reinstated and the students at his school in Topeka, Kansas suddenly had the ability to speak in at least 21 foreign languages. This lead to missionaries going to India, and other places, with the idea that once they got there they would be able to preach the Gospel in the native language of the people. Since this was not the true gift of tongues as mentioned in Acts 2 it failed miserably.

In 1905 Parham closed his school in Topeka, Kansas and started a new school in Houston, Texas. It was at this school that he met William Seymour. Seymour was a black holiness preacher. Seymour wholeheartedly accepted the teaching that tongues, not holiness, was the evidence of being filled with the Holy Spirit. He rejected Parham's teaching that the lost tribes of Israel are the Anglo-Saxon races and his belief in the supremacy of the white race. Parham became an avid supporter of the Klu Klux Klan.

Seymour rented an old abandoned African Methodist Episcopal church at 312 Azusa Street in Los Angeles California. Seymour became known as the man "given to dreams and visions" and was call the Apostle of Azusa Street. On April 18, 1906 the Azusa Street revival began. The Los Angeles Times, in their article called "Weird Babble of Tongues" reported people engaged in "the jerks," strange "babbling of wordless talk" and trance-like states. Soon spiritualists, mediums, and other occult groups began attending and participate in these services.

This quickly got so out of hand that Seymour called Parham for advice on how to handle the situation. Parham came to see things for himself. Parham was outraged and denounced the meetings as "spiritual power prostituted" and denounced the spiritualists and hypnotists that had taken over the services, and the "awful fits and spasms." Seymour refused correction and barred Parham from ever preaching at Azusa Street again and Parham denounced Seymour as possessed. The doctrinal and racial differences between the two men were never repaired.

Today the Assemblies of God still hold Parham as their father, and the teaching that the new "prayer language" is the evidence of being filled with the Holy Spirit. But they reject the teaching of Anglo-Israelism, the KKK, and blacks are accepted in their churches.

They have, however, accepted the Brownville revival, which would now put them more in Seymour's camp.

Pietism / Brethren
Pietistic groups stress a personal relationship without creeds, emphasizing personal devotions. They are known for foot washing, wearing plain clothing, and women cover their heads in church. They anoint with oil for healing and consecration, refrain from worldly amusements, refuse to take oaths, go to war, or engage in lawsuits. 

Pietistic Denominations:
  1. Brethren Church, founded 1882 
    Tries to balance between Calvinist and Arminian doctrine. (more Arminian)
  2. Brethren in Christ Church, founded 1778 
    Temperance and modesty in all things, Pacifists, Holiness
  3. Church of God (Anderson IN), founded 1881 
    Amillennial, Holiness, foot washing
  4. Church of the Brethren, founded 1708 
    Three fold immersion, foot washing, Pacifists, ecumenical
  5. Church of the United Brethren in Christ, founded 1767 
    Banned activities: alcohol, membership in secret societies
  6. Evangelical Covenant Church, founded 1885 
    Infant baptism
  7. Evangelical Free Church of America, founded 1950 
  8. Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches, founded 1939 
    Calvinist, More conservative, three fold communion (includes foot washing and love feast)
  9. Moravian Church, founded 1735 
    Infant baptism, love feast, Pacifists
  10. Old German Baptist Brethren, founded 1881 
    More conservative: no Sunday school, salaried ministers, missions, higher education, alcohol, taking oaths, no engaging in politics or secret societies, lawsuits, divorced can't be remarried, women are veiled in church
  11. Unity of the Brethren, founded 1903
    Sacramentalist, foot washing

The Presbyterian church took its roots from John Calvin, who developed the five points of Calvinism around 1540. John Knox then took his teaching father by adding the concept of God predestining the fall. 

All Presbyterian churches believe in five point Calvinism and teach Covenant Theology (not Dispensationalism). They practice Infant Baptism, which is looked at as the parents promising that they will raise the child as a Christian, therefore the child is already in "the covenant."  

The Presbyterian Church USA, which is the largest of the Presbyterian denominations, ordains women ministers, takes a neutral stance on Abortion, accepts practicing homosexuals as Christians, and rarely ever speak about hell, or prophecy.

Presbyterian Denominations:

  1. Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP), founded 1782
  2. Cumberland Presbyterian Church, founded 1810
    Christ died for all,
  3. Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America, founded 1874
  4. Evangelical Presbyterian Church, founded 1981
  5. Korean-American Presbyterian Church, founded 1976
  6. Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), founded 1936
    Protest Modernism, women can't hold office
  7. Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), founded 1973
    Women can't be ordained
  8. Presbyterian Church (USA), founded 1983
  9. Reformed Presbyterian Church of north America, founded 1809

Reformed Churches

Reformed Churches hold the same Calvinist Doctrines as the Presbyterians hold, but tend to have a different organizational structure. They also hold to the threefold division of the Epistle of Romans.

  1. Christian Reformed Church in North America, founded 1857
  2. Hungarian Reformed Church in America, founded 1924
  3. Netherlands Reformed Congregations in North America, founded 1907
  4. Protestant Reformed Churches in America, founded 1926
    Believe in some form of common grace
  5. Reformed Church in America, founded 1792
    In full communion with the ELCA
  6. Reformed Church in the United States, founded 1942
    Apposed liberal interpretation of Scripture